The original collection began in 1938 when the wagon shop at Fort Leavenworth closed and the horse-drawn vehicles were relocated and called the "Old Rolling Wheels Museum."
In 1960, the museum was officially recognized as an Army Museum and has continued to preserve one of the finest collections of nineteenth century military artifacts in the country.
The museum's main gallery highlights the efforts of the Frontier Army in exploration, expansion and protection of the Trans-Mississippi West from the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804) to the chase of Pancho Villa by General John Pershing (1916). The museum offers a unique look at the tools of soldiering used throughout this time period.
The Fort Leavenworth gallery highlights the importance of Fort Leavenworth's role in the exploration and expansion of the nation throughout the nineteenth century as well as its continuing role in soldier education.